Europe and Eurasia: Romania
More information about Romania is available on the Romania Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.
The United States established diplomatic relations with Romania in 1880, following Romania’s independence. The two countries severed diplomatic ties after Romania declared war on the United States in 1941, but reestablished them in 1947. Relations remained strained during the Cold War era while Romania was under communist leadership. After the 1989 revolution ended communist rule, however, Romania’s policies became unequivocally pro-Western. In the decades that followed, the United States and Romania deepened relations by increasing cooperation on shared goals including economic and political development, defense reform, and non-traditional threats such as transnational crime and non-proliferation.
In 2011, the United States and Romania issued the “Joint Declaration on Strategic Partnership for the 21st Century Between the United States of America and Romania.” The two countries identified key areas for enhanced cooperation, focusing on our political-military relationship, law-enforcement cooperation, trade and investment opportunities, and energy security. In 2016, the two countries reaffirmed their commitment to this cooperation in a joint declaration marking the five-year anniversary of the 2011 agreement. The United States and Romania are mutually committed to supporting human rights, the rule of law, and peace and freedom for everyone. The two countries are bound together through myriad people-to-people ties in business, the arts, scholarship, and a host of other exchanges. Romania’s promotion of greater cooperation among its Black Sea neighbors in the areas of defense, law enforcement, energy, economic development, and the environment complement the U.S. goal of enhancing stability in this sensitive and important region.
Romania joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 2004 and has established itself as a steadfast ally of both the United States and NATO. The country continues to improve its capabilities for NATO and multinational operations and has repeatedly deployed forces and assets in support of shared national security interests, including significant contributions of troops, equipment, and other assistance in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, and Kosovo. In September 2015, Romania stood up a NATO Force Integration Unit with the primary responsibility to facilitate the rapid deployment of NATO troops, if necessary. The following year it established the Alliance’s Multinational Division-Southeast headquarters in Bucharest, NATO’s command and control node for the region. Finally in July 2016 at the Warsaw Summit, Romania committed to host a NATO multinational brigade, which is under development.
Romania hosts elements of the U.S. European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) to missile defense that is now operational and was adopted as part of NATO’s ballistic missile defense at the Warsaw NATO Summit in July 2016. The two countries signed a ballistic missile defense agreement in 2011, and in October 2014, the U.S. Navy formally established Naval Support Facility-Deveselu, the first new Navy base since 1987, where the EPAA Aegis Ashore missile defense interceptor site was constructed. The base houses several hundred U.S. sailors and navy contractors on a persistent, rotational basis.
In 2005, the United States and Romania signed the Defense Cooperation Agreement, which is the framework for our military engagements. The agreement established several (currently six with more being contemplated) joint use facilities. Mihael Kogalniceanu airbase near Constanta is an important multi-modal transportation hub for U.S. forces and currently houses several hundred U.S. marines and army soldiers. The other joint use facilities are Babadag training area and rail head, Campia Turzi air base, Cincu training range, Targu Mares military base, and Smardan training range.
U.S. Assistance to Romania
U.S. security assistance supports Romania in completing its military modernization, improving its interoperability with U.S. and NATO forces, and increasing its expeditionary deployment capabilities in support of NATO’s collective defense and coalition operations with the United States.
Bilateral Economic Relations
Following the 1989 revolution, Romania’s economy began a transition from state control to capitalism. The country worked to create a legal framework consistent with a market economy and investment promotion. Romania became a member of the European Union (EU) in 2007. In 1992, the United States and Romania signed a bilateral investment treaty (BIT), which came into force in 1994. In 2003, prior to Romania’s accession to the EU, the United States and Romania amended the BIT, which remains in effect. Romania attracts U.S. investors interested in accessing the European market, with relatively low costs and a well-educated, tech-savvy population being major draws. In Romania, major U.S. firms operate in the energy, manufacturing, information technology and telecommunications, services, and consumer products sectors. Top Romanian exports to the United States include machinery, vehicle parts, steel and metallic items, and fertilizers.
Romania’s Membership in International Organizations
Romania and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization, among others.
Romania maintains an embassy in the United States at 1607 23rd St., NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-332-4846).
More information about Romania is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here:
Department of State Romania Page
Department of State Key Officers List
CIA World Factbook Romania Page
U.S. Embassy: Romania
History of U.S. Relations With Romania
Human Rights Reports
International Religious Freedom Reports
Trafficking in Persons Reports
Narcotics Control Reports
Investment Climate Statements
U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Statistics
Export.gov International Offices Page
Library of Congress Country Studies
Travel and Business Information